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Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to function with no central authority or banks; managing transactions and the issuing of bitcoins is carried out together by the network. Bitcoin is open-source; its design is public, nobody owns or controls Bitcoin and everyone can participate. Through many of its unique properties, Bitcoin allows exciting uses that could not be dealt with by any preceding payment method. .
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Bitcoin () is a cryptocurrency, a kind of electronic money. It's a decentralized electronic currency without a central bank or single administrator which can be sent out of user-to-user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries.7
Transactions are confirmed by network nodes via cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger known as a blockchain. Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of individuals using the name Satoshi Nakamoto9 and published as open-source applications in 2009.10 Bitcoins are made as a reward for a procedure known as mining.
Research generated by the University of Cambridge estimates that in 2017, there were 2.9 to 5.8 million unique users using a cryptocurrency wallet, most of them using bitcoin.12.
Bitcoin has been criticized for its use in prohibited transactions, its own high power consumption, price volatility, thefts from exchanges, and the possibility that bitcoin is an economic bubble.13 Bitcoin has also been used as an investment, even though several regulatory agencies have issued investor alarms about bitcoin.14
The domain name"bitcoin.org" was registered on 18 August 2008.15 On 31 October 2008, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System5 was submitted to some cryptography mailing list.16 Nakamoto implemented the bitcoin software as open-source code and published it in January 2009.171810 Nakamoto's identity remains unknown.9.
In January 2009, the bitcoin network was created when Nakamoto mined the first block of this chain, known as the genesis block.1920 Embedded in the coinbase of the block was the link following text:"The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks. "10 This note has been interpreted as both a timestamp and a comment on the instability caused by fractional-reserve banking.21:18.
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The receiver of the initial bitcoin transaction was cypherpunk Hal Finney, who created the first reusable proof-of-work system (RPOW) in 2004.22 Finney downloaded the bitcoin applications on its release , and on 12 January 2009 obtained ten bitcoins from Nakamoto.2324 Other ancient cypherpunk fans were creators of bitcoin predecessors: Wei Dai, founder of b-money, and Nick Szabo, creator of little golden.25 In 2010, the first known business transaction using bitcoin occurred when developer Laszlo Hanyecz bought two Papa John's pizzas for 10,000 bitcoin.26.
Nakamoto is estimated to have mined one million bitcoins27 before disappearing in 2010, when he handed the network awake crucial and control of this code over to Gavin Andresen. Andresen later became lead developer at the Bitcoin Foundation.2829 Andresen then sought to decentralize control. This abandoned opportunity for controversy to develop over the future development path of bitcoin.3029.
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After early"proof-of-concept" transactions, the first major consumers of bitcoin were black markets, such as Silk Road. During its 30 months of existence, beginning in February 2011, Silk Road exclusively accepted bitcoins as payment, transacting 9.9 million in bitcoins, worth roughly $214 million.31:222
In 2011, the price started at $0.30 per bitcoin, growing to $5.27 for year. The cost rose to $31.50 on 8 June. Within a month that the cost fell to $11.00. The next month it dropped to $7.80, and in another month to $4.77.32
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Litecoin, an early bitcoin spin-off or altcoin, appeared in October 2011.33 Many altcoins have been created since then.34
In 2012, bitcoin prices started at $5.27 growing to $13.30 for the calendar year.32 By 9 January the cost had risen to $7.38, but then dropped by 49% to $3.80 over the next 16 days. The price then rose to $16.41 on 17 August, but fell by 57 percent to $7.10 within the next 3 days.35.
In March 2013 the blockchain temporarily split into two independent chains with different rules. The two blockchains operated simultaneously for six hours, each with its own version of the transaction history. Normal operation was revived when the vast majority of the network downgraded to version 0.7 of their bitcoin applications.37 The Mt.
Gox experienced processing delays because of insufficient capacity44 resulting in the bitcoin cost dropping from $266 to $76 prior to returning to $160 within six hours.45 The bitcoin cost rose to $259 on 10 April, but then dropped by 83 percent to $45 within the next three days.35 On 15 May 2013, US authorities captured accounts connected with Mt.